Diseases contracted from enemies and traps can be healed at shrines.
Ataxia: contracted from traps and skeevers. It makes Lock picking and Pickpocket 25% harder.
Bone Bark fever: contracted traps and bears . - 25 Stamina
Brain Rott contracted from taps. - 25 Magika
Dragonslayer's Blessing: contracted from Blades quest and last for 5 days. additional 10% Critical Hit Chance
Sanguinare Vampiris: contracted from vampires. turns you into a vampire
Lycanthropy: contracted from Werewolf or The Companions quest line.