These recipes are the most basic ones that you will find in Minecraft. They are essential to any startup adventurer. Most of these are to either make you life easier (bed, torch, and chests) while other are need for other crafting recipes (crafting table, planks, furnaces, and sticks).
Bed- to sleep safely you must be out of hostile mobs reach/spawn
Chest- can hold up to 27 items. When placed next to each other, they combine to double chest
Furnace- used for smelting